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Fix your Corrupted JPEG Photos!

Don't worry! Many damaged JPEG photos can actually be fixed!

Corrupt Photos

Have you ever opened a photo on your hard drive, only to find that your JPEG image is now garbled by colors and lines, banding or shifted? ... Worse yet, the photo won't even open and instead reports an error?

Typical Error Messages Indicating Corruption

  • No Preview Available - Windows Explorer
  • Drawing Failed - Windows Picture & Fax Viewer
  • This document may be damaged (the file may be truncated or incomplete) - Photoshop
  • Can't read file header! Unknown file format or file not found! - IrfanView
  • Could not complete your request because an unknown or invalid JPEG marker type is found - Photoshop

Fixing Corrupt Photos

During the development of JPEGsnoop (a JPEG analysis tool), I began to question whether it was at all possible to fix images that have had errors in the scan segment (JFIF SOS) bitstream. After significant analysis and tool development, I am happy to report that I am now able to correct many of these photos!

Unique Correction Technique!

While there are dozens of software utilities available on the web that advertise that they fix or recover corrupt JPEGs, I am not yet aware of any that actually correct scan bitstream errors (as shown in the samples below). In nearly all cases, these programs will recover the files from deletion (stitching file clusters together) but you may still be left with a damaged JPEG image!

I believe my technique to be unique and hence the reason I decided to post this page and share my services. Photos can often be fixed with virtually no degradation to the original image!

Examples of Repaired Photos

The following shows a few examples of photos that I have successfully recovered. In some cases, as many as 100 errors in the scan segment have been corrected. None of the digital images below had Restart Markers in their bitstreams or misplaced file clusters.

Original Damaged PhotoAfter Fixing JPEG

*** Submit your Corrupt Photo for Fixing! ***

Due to the huge demand in repairing damaged photos and the significant time that goes into repairing some of these corrupted images, I am not able to accept all entries -- the service is done on an individual basis. Every corrupted photo is different, often requiring new custom techniques to be developed.

Using this process, I have fixed hundreds of photos, including:

  • Vacation Photos
  • Baby Photos
  • Family Photos
  • Wedding Photos

Do you still have your Memory Card?

I am not currently accepting recovery requests for those who still have their memory card

When recovery requests are available (see above), I would accept them at the Undelete / Unformat Photos page

Current Status: Closed for non-card Submissions

At the present time, I have limited spare time available for image repair, so I am no longer accepting individual images (ie. without memory card). Thanks for your understanding.

NOTE: Photos submitted for correction will never be shared or posted publicly! You can rest assured that images are treated as private and confidential.

But the JPEG Thumbnail is OK!

One common misconception people have is that the thumbnail image (that you see in Windows Explorer, for example) is representative of the condition of the actual image data. This is not the case! A JPEG thumbnail may look perfectly good, but the actual image data could be completely corrupted. That is why you cannot judge whether your files copied OK or are uncorrupted by looking at the preview thumbnail.

Why is this? When your digital camera (or image editor) produces a JPEG file, it creates this in two parts: the first part is your image metadata (EXIF date, time, shooting info, keywords, etc.), which also includes an embedded small thumbnail image. It then creates the second part, the full-size image data, and also stores this into the same file.

JPEG images are almost never corrupted during generation, so both the thumbnail and real image at this point are both fine. However, at some later stage, the file may become damaged (through a copy operation or otherwise), and regions of bytes throughout the file can become erased, overwritten, etc. If this damage occurs to the part of the file that contains the thumbnail, then the thumbnail will be corrupted. If the damage occurs to any of the main image data (scan segment) then the main image will be corrupted. Since the thumbnail section is often less than 2% of the total file size (the rest being the main image data), it is far more likely that the main image will be corrupted but the thumbnail appear fine!

Gray Areas in your Image

In various forums on the internet, people have incorrectly stated that photos are unrecoverable if they contain gray areas. This is not usually true. Some JPEG decoders are very picky with how they recover from errors and simply report Drawing Failed (in Windows Picture and Fax Viewer), while others might draw a middle-gray region or just display a "Red X". In some cases the gray area is in fact completely damaged (overwritten by unrelated data), but this is not always the case.

Why do JPEGs get damaged?

There are many sources of damage to photo files, but the most common reasons are:

  • Photos were deleted or formatted & a "recovery" utility was used
  • Memory card / hard drive error (logical or physical error)
  • RAM failure
  • File transfer / interface error
    (memory coherency issues, buffer over/underrun, etc.)

What Happens when you Open / Decode a Corrupted JPEG?

Even a single byte changed in a JPEG file can cause an image to be unrecognizable (or not open at all). Why?

Because of the way JPEG compression is designed, images are stored in tightly-packed streams of binary bits (not bytes). Each pixel can be represented by as few as 2 bits to as many as 26 bits (dictated by the variable-length Huffman Coding scheme). To make matters worse, in an effort to keep the compression as efficient as possible, there is virtually nothing to indicate where you are in the stream of bits (unless Restart Markers are used). Therefore, as soon as a single bit is encountered wrong, the millions of bits that follow will be decoded incorrectly as well. The manner in which DC and AC coefficients are arranged in MCUs means that this corruption often shows up in shearing, wild color shifts and many other visual phenomena.

How can you prevent corrupt JPEG Photos?

One cannot completely eliminate the chances of eventually encountering data corruption within your photos, but there are a few steps you can take that will increase the odds of successfully recovering a photo. For example, let's say that you erased a number of photos from your memory card and wanted to recover them. The likelihood of a successful recovery can be increased by:

  • For memory cards, periodically Format the card instead of using single-file delete or delete-all.
  • Run a RAM test on your PC whenever you buy/change/upgrade your Memory DIMMs
  • Use the Safely Remove Hardware taskbar button when you want to unplug a memory card / card reader if you have been doing anything other than viewing files.
  • During USB transfer operations (e.g. copying files from card to hard drive), limit other activities on the PC.
  • During CD/DVD burning operatinos (e.g. burning photos to CD/DVD), limit other activities on the PC.

Collectively, these steps will help to: reduce the chance of buffer underruns, bit errors, incomplete transfers and non-contiguous file cluster allocations.


Reader's Comments:

 You referenced that the steps for trying to repair jpgs was posted on 4-17. Can you repost?
 Thanks Cal,

Really appreciate all ur help on this. I have three digital cams, though I will keep trying with pics from other cams, as u are correct and there were two cams used with that card.

I just assumed it pulled in order as I took them.
Thanks again!!!
 It makes sense -- remember that most recovery utilities aren't very smart when it comes to figuring out what fragments of the data on your hard drive are associated with a particular filename or file header. It is quite possible that it recovered a file header from one image and connected it to the image data of another file -- which will cause all sorts of decoding problems as you've noted here. Your best bet is to repeat the process with samples from the other two digicams and you may find a match. Good luck!
2008-04-23Ben Basten
 Hey,i have some photos that are corrupt, would you be able to look at 1 and see if they are salvagable? Would happily pay you. Lost some fantastic shots in New York :-(
 Hi Ben, I'm just getting ready to go out of the country for a couple months, so I'm pretty tight on time, but I'll see if I can give you a quick idea as to whether or not your file contains recoverable data. Email sent.
 Thanks Cal,

I have followed the instructions and get a working picture, drawing failed, but I can view to print. There's only one problem:

The new picture, the first part copied from working and the second part from the not working, is a copy of the working picture. Is there something I did wrong or is there something more going on with the picture I am trying to restore?

Both pics are landscape from a canon powershot A630 but differnt cards. Does that make a differnce?
 After analyzing the damaged file (once I had repaired the header), I suspect that the image data that it contains is not from a Canon PowerShot A630. Is it possible that your recovered file may have been from a different camera? (If you ran a recovery program to get this file, it is very likely that it may have recovered parts belonging to different deleted files on your drive). Keep in mind that any thumbnail that may be displayed with the "damaged" file may have nothing to do with the actual image data that is within the file (I realize this sounds confusing!). Having the files on different cards should make no difference to the actual file content / headers.
 I want to re-create EXIF thumbnails in my photo files and just tried the jhead tool (-rgt xyz.jpg) to do the job. It basically works, but I want it perfect:

If I try to load the image back into the camera, there's an error message saying something like "This photo has been modified or was not made using a Canon camera".
I've found out that my digital camera only accepts files with certain encoding parameters. Uploading my files is failing because of the different encoding of the thumbnail picture. If I change the encoding tables to the original ones, the camera accepts the upload but certainly the thumbnail can't be decoded properly.

Is there any way to encode a JPG file along with a predefined (user given) quantization table (DQT), sample fac (SOF0) and huffman table (DHT)? Do you know a piece of software which can do this?
 Thanks for a quick response. I'm not real sure on what I am doing. I've downloaded a hex editor and pulled up the non working pic and a working one.

Everything looks normal EXCEPT in the nonworking ( DHT error) there are alot of FF in line 99 and AA where as the working they are not there.

I am assuming this is what I am to be changing to match the work pic. Am I correct?

Thanks Again!!
 I plan to create a web page to detail exactly how one can fix header errors such as this. Or, better yet, I might add this as a feature to JPEGsnoop. As a first method of trying to fix your corrupted images, it's always worth a shot and is easy to do.

In advance of this feature, here's what you can try doing:
  1. Open up the damaged photo (corrupted header) in the hex editor
  2. Open up another photo taken with the same camera, and with the same orientation in another window of the hex editor
  3. Identify the start of the real (not thumbnail) scan data -- the easiest way to do this is open up the damaged file in JPEGsnoop and look for the OFFSET line under the heading Marker: SOS. Note down this hex number (eg. 0x00002C5F).
  4. Repeat the same process with the good photo (eg. 0x000030DB)
  5. Now, in a copy of your corrupted photo file, use the hex editor to delete everything from 0x00000000 to 1 less than the offset noted in step 3 (ie. 0x00002C5E).
  6. In the good version of the photo, copy everything from 0x00000000 to 1 less than the offset noted in step 4 (ie. 0x000030DA).
  7. Back in the copy of your corrupted photo file, use the hex editor and paste (insert) what you copied, right at the start of the file (position 0x00000000). Save as a different file name.
When you reopen the modified version of the damaged file, you should see that the thumbnail now represents the "good file" you were working with. If you only had a header corruption, then the damaged image may now be brought back to life!

Let me know if you have any difficulties with this, Cal.
 Is there anyway to correct a invalid DHT class? Seems to be the only error in my corrupt pics.
 If your only error is a problem with the DHT tables, then you may be in luck. Most digital cameras use a hardcoded DHT table (because most don't do any "huffman optimization"). Therefore, you can usually overwrite the JPEG header (or just the DHT table) with the header from another image from the same digital camera. If you have troubles doing this, let me know. Cal.
Just found this post after several hours of searching. Memory card recieved an error, used a recovery program, pulled 50 jpegs. Very happy to see them of course as they are of a friend's son's 1st birthday party!

Problem: Unviewable, properties shows the same size as saved and saved on disc, but are not pulling up. All pics have a differnt size, reading as all data is there but I can't view or print. Any suggestions?

Think it's great your willing to help out when most people charge for advise and help. Thanks in advance and thanks for having your page out there!!!
 Is it possible that you can share your techniques with others who may be able to learn and fix their own photos? We have a large number of photos that have been corrupted or ruined by a virus and we are willing to take the time to learn techniques to repair them. Anything you can provide in terms of instruction would be greatly appreciated. We are very concerned about these photos.
Thank you.
 Please see my comment posted on 2008-04-18. Thanks.
2008-04-07Sam Tai

Can you please help me to fix seven photos that encountered the problem that you mentioned above. Your help is much appreaciated. Thanks. Let me know how I send you the problematic pictures.
Just wondering if you will be offering your corrupt photo fixing service again.

I have several picture files of my family that I was able to grab from a damaged XD card but I get either a partial picture with a grey bar or an all grey screen in place of my picture. I also have a couple with a thumbnail but no picture.
2008-03-16Steve Gall
 You appear to be THE JPEG Repair Guru! After extensive searching you are the only one addressing my problems. Any chance of a how to manual or a direction to take so us mortals can do this without using up your precious time?
 I have several images I need your help with when you come back. Your help would be greatly appreciated.
 I´m at the end of my witts, I jst spent over 7 hours on a pc, trying every possible programme to retrieve my pics. I was able to retrieve half of them, and the other half is retrieved but unviewable as you mentioned before.

Please help.
thx in advance,
 Is there an application that can scan the PC for corrupted jpg's? This would enable them being moved prior to backup.
I have found a few corrupted jpg's on an ext HD backup. Fortunately I had copied them to DVD as soon as they were loaded onto the PC!
 I don't know specifically of a program designed to do this, but you could run jpegsnoop in command line mode and then grep (search) for errors. This sounds like a reasonably good feature to add to JPEGsnoop if I decide to integrate batch operations. I'll add it to the list. Thx.
 Hi, my jpeg pictures were ruined while i was transferring to a harddrive so i can reformat unfortunately almost all of my files were corrupted. Others can be replaced except for my pictures. I have thousands of corrupted jpegs. Can you pls help me on how o do this?
Thank you very much, I'll be waiting when you get back!
 Hi, i've been searching high and low in the internet for a very good jpeg recovery program to no avail. and just recently come across your site offering that kind of service. what i have is mostly corrupted jpeg header files. they got corrupted when i used a software recovery program when my hard drive crashed. i used your jpegsnoop and when it said to use img searchl fwd, it says that NO SOI MARKER FOUND in forward search. does this mean that the files are really gone for good? hope you can help me. i can send you some files to test if you can recover them. then i'll take you up on your services. thanks.
 If the images don't show an SOI marker (after searching forward in the file), it is less likely that the image will be recoverable, since there is a greater chance that the entire file sectors, that used to be occupied by the photo, have now been replaced by non-image data.
 Good Evening-

I have a laptop that is running Vista. I have a desktop running Windows XP Pro. I have lots of photos from a recent vacation/destination wedding that I downloaded on the laptop and then cut and copied over to the Desktop via my wireless network since the Desktop is backed up. Nearly ALL the photos are "damaged" with the lines like you show on your website. There are also several photos that I looked at through the laptop from the desktop and nearly all of my daughter's last month's worth of baby photos are also damaged. Can these be repaired? Can you recover these? I am very upset about these losses.

I did some reading about this issue and it seems that Vista has some sort of new Jpeg program imbedded in it that is suppose to further compress the jpeg file (Jpeg XR) and it supposedly does NOT play nice with the standard Jpeg programs/readers that everyone is use to. Is this true? Is there a way to convert the photos I have on my laptop in Vista back to the "old" jpeg? I want all my photos in one place, the desktop, where they will be backed up and safe. As I said, a straight transfer via the wireless or a thumb drive or the camera disks does not work as that is how many of my photos became damged in the first place.

Please let me know if you can answer some of my questions or can save my damaged photos. I am devestated and these memories are priceless.

Thank you.

PS. Hope your vacation rocked!
 Hi Cathy -- It is quite possible that your images can be repaired. I don't think this would have anything to do with the JPEG XR (Microsoft HD Photo) format, as I'm pretty sure that a program would have asked you specifically if you had wanted to convert your images (after all, such a conversion process will cause some image degradation). I prefer to stick to network backup (NAS), as this has made the backup process automated (so I don't get lazy) and there is far less of a chance for errors (each backup is verified). If you're interested, have a look at my page on Do It Yourself Offsite Backup.
2008-02-21Desmond Ling
 Hi, I have some photos that i took with my mobilephone camera that will not open..

Should I email them to you now or when you get back?
I took these photos when i was on my Youth Exchange trip last December. (Some of them are really precious... :( )

Thanks in Advance!!

As to all, I have a few broken JPGs I need to fix. Couldn't find anysoftware for this job.
Please reply
 I have just one photo that is messed up, showing the top third but the grey boxes below, and as you say, the thumbnail is not messed up, wondering if you can save it, thanks!
 Hi, had a crash and recovered foto's with GDB 3.32.
But vieuwer can't open it. As I read in your guestbook I think you're somekind of magician!
Can you please take a look and see if you can recover my pics.


 I went to Disneyland and some of the pictures that I took were unreadable when I transferred them to my computer. They are also unreadable on the camera. Let me know if I can send you a sample photo and see what you can do to it. Thanks!
2008-01-30Don Pich
 I have some pictures of my Dad's funeral that got trashed. These are the only files that I have of it, and I would really like some help in getting them restored.

Can't wait you come back. I have more than 2 hundreds JPG are corrupted from SD card. I have tried various softwares but all failed. I guess you are the only hope. Enjoy your time and we talk again when you come back. Thanks.

 Hey Calvin,

I recently got back from finland, my girlfriend and i's first holiday together, and in the process of copying files from my girlfriends phone memorycard, the cardreader died and it corrupted 3/4 of the images on it. Is there anything you can do for me once you're back?

I'll not email just yet, I'll wait until i get a reply when you're back after february.

 When I return I hope to have more time to start looking at new images. Thanks.
 I've a few photographs of some functions. Now the problem I am facing is my jpeg files are not opening, in photoshop it says invalid jpeg marker file found. I've tried hell of programmes if you can help I can send you a few photographs.
 My file showing Like this error
Filesize: [2489457] Bytes
Start Offset: 0x00000000
NOTE: File did not start with JPEG marker. Consider using [Tools->Img Search Fwd] to locate embedded JPEG.

Please give me a solution
 That error message indicates that the file's header doesn't appear to match what is expected in a JPEG JFIF file. For files generated by recovery utilities, this is sometimes the case. It is still possible that your image data exists within your 2.5MB file, so go to the Tools menu and select Image Search Forward -- this will look through the file to see if any other JPEG headers / images exist in your file.
i recently got back from a vaction and my camera was acting up but i had already taken about 160 pictures and could still view them on the camera but when i put them on my computer only about 20 of them worked and the rest wouldnt preview and when i try to open them it just shows a little red x..and now when i put the memory card back in the camera it says it needs to be formatted...i've been trying everything but nothing seems to work...if you have any suggestions it would be greatly appreciated...thanks
 I hope you can help...

My situation occurred when I was copying files from a Vista PC over my network to an XP machine. I received an error during the transfer (can't recall what, exactly), all files not complete at the time of the error are unreadable. I've emailed 2 examples.

The first example is the way the file landed on the XP machine (file name: P1030815.JPG) after the transfer.

The second example is a file that was "recovered" from the Vista machine using Disaster Recovery software. Portions of the file are viewable, portions are not. (file name: UNNAMED_FILE13808.jpeg).

I have about 72 files affected in this manner - thanks for any assistance you can provide.

I lost many photos of my baby due to a window crash where I had to repartition. I was able to recover many using RecoverMyFiles, however most of them came up corrupted. When I use IrfanView to open them, I get a message "Huffman table 0x00 not defined. I tried to use a hex editor to see if I can extract the data part but no go. I think the issue is in the header. Any help would be greatly appreciated.
 It turns out that the files you sent me were actually recovered segments from a short video clip of your baby. The RecoverMyFiles application recognized the embedded JPEG markers and assumed that these must simply be JPEG images, even though they are not standalone JPEG JFIF files. I have analyzed the files and managed to extract a couple frames for you to see.
2008-01-07David W
 A whole load of JPEG photo files stored on my computer will not preview (Windows) or open. The affected files all show they were modified on the same day (23 Dec 07) when I was transfering photos to a Philips photoframe. But many were neither opened or moved on that day, at least not by me. Any idea as to what might have occured, and whether they can be recovered. Properties shows they still have file content.
 Hi there

I am in need of urgent help as I was using my SONY t200 whilst on holiday I took 3- 400 pics setting was on 8 mega pixel, using a SONY 4GB (brought from ebay yes most likely FAKE) I had no issues taking the first 300 picures I did notice a few appear as "file error" on the LCD after viewing it back, so then on checked every image but then after taking the last 50 there was no image in the thumbnail viewer and it was a simple blue background? Once extracted from memory Card all it shows is a JPEG logo and does not draw it, and fails I had used various programmes such as Zero Assumption Recovery and Photo Rescue and some pic up the file that i need and some failed to pic it up at all , but once it did pic it up i can see the image was corrupted and other images where incorporated! Can this be rescued as I really need this image .

 Hi, I took a couple of photos of my son with my grandmother over Christmas and while using my Olympus software to reduce the red eye effect they have stopped working. I can't get a thumbnail or view them at all and I am so sad as she is really elderly and I wanted to send her a copy. Please help - I have emailed them to you on the of chance that you can fix one of them.
 Just got back from a Holiday trip and my daughter's new camera corrupted the pictures we took (happened to be the only camera we brought along).

Hoping you will be able to help, as I am just sick over this!

I sent you a few of the pictures to see if they are fixable.

Thank you much for your help and time!
2008-01-02joe pq
 i took a pic over the weekend. its probably a once in a lifetime shot. wondering if you could help.
2008-01-02A Clements
 I've created many jpg and tif files via my HP scanner. Now it seems that none of them will open although they worked fine for quite a while! Your help and analysis would be greatly appreciated!
 Send the photos to the email address shown above and I'll have a look!
 Hello, I have many photos from a whole memory card that were corrupted in transfer from the card to the computer, for months i have been quite hopeless and hopefull i would run into someone who could help me, so far no one other than this website has given me hope. My eyes lit up when i saw the pics you recovered from before and after... LOOKS JUST LIKE MY SITUATION.. i sent you 2 pics to show what happened, if you could recover them, without too much hassle it would be fantastic... and mend my heart!!! ;-)
 Hi, I just have the one photo of my son on Christmas morning with his new guitar.....he only one I took, could you possibly help please.
 Hi Claire -- email the photo to the address posted above, and I'll let you know if the JPEG photo can be repaired.
2008-01-01Nick Russo
 Thank you so much for repairing my damaged jpegs. They were irreplaceable, and I was incredulous when I found they had been corrupted.

I can only speculate that they had been damaged in the process of moving them from one HD to another.

I never thought I would see them again in perfect condition. I hope someday software can be developed to do this that is not so labor-intensive.

Thanks so much for your time, and caring!
 You're welcome, Nick!
 I just have 1 photo if you could please fix it for me. I have triplets and this is the only Halloween photo of the 3 of them together. I will e-mail it if you agree. Thanks!
 Hi Lara -- Send me them via email and I'll take a look. Cal.
2007-12-29Laura Stane
 Hi, I have quite a bit of photos sent to me on two discs. Most of the pictures can't even load their preview icons, I can't copy them onto my computer, and when I open one it is mostly comprised of gray area, is this something that could be fixed with a program? Could you help me with this?
 When you say that you can't copy the files onto your computer, what happens when you try? Do you get a disk error message (what does it say?). If you are seeing a Cyclic Redundancy Check failure (CRC) when trying to read from the CD, then you should consider running a utility such as CDCheck (free) to see if you can recover the files first. If, after recovery, the JPEG images appear corrupted, send them to me and I'll see if repair is possible.
 have some pic from outlook express...corrupted..pse help..
 Unfortunately the files you sent have been completely overwritten by non-JPEG image data, so recovery will not be possible.
 (Corrupt image uploaded via private submission)
 Corrected JPEG image sent back by email!
 Hi Cal, I've just sent a file to you. This file is unviewable, and the memory card is also no longer readable. Could you help, please?
 Hi John -- Unfortunately, the file you sent does not actually contain any image data. Instead, the contents were actually derived from the FAT (directory table) of your memory card.

Just because the memory card is unreadable, it doesn't mean that your images are gone for good. You may still be able to recover them -- there are many free memory card recovery utilities on the web. Run any one of these on your memory card (it will be especially helpful if it can do low-level JPEG signature detection).

Quite often these utilities work quite well at extracting what appears to be recovered files, but many times these will still be corrupted (unviewable). If you do manage to get the files recovered from the card with such a utility, send me the recovered data and I will see if I can repair the corrupted JPEGs. Also, you can try sending me a couple of the other files from this batch that you currently have on your PC that are unreadable, and I'll see if they suffer from the same problem.
 Hi Cal,

Thanks for fixing my corrupt jpeg! I tried half a dozen tools off the internet and they all gave really poor results. The picture you sent back to me is just like the original. I hope you can create a tool which automates the process so I can fix all my corrupt photos!

Also have to add a thankyou for jpegsnoop, i've been playing and using it to tell what type of camera my friends have and which photo editing software they use.

Keep up the great work!
 You're welcome! Over time, I continue to encounter new ways that images can become corrupted (memory card FAT errors and CD burning errors are common). Many times these different failures will require completely different approaches for the corrections. As I develop the tools further, I'm trying to make the process more efficient. Eventually, this may result in an application that would be suitable for others to operate as well. Thx.
 I've also the same problem with a lot of photos. I'll hope you can help me please.
 Looks like I was able to recover it 100%. Enjoy!
2007-12-10Jim Hines
 What a wonderful explanation of what can go wrong. I've sent a file to see if you can fix, hopefully you can. Simply wonderful explanation.
 Thanks :) The repair is complete, check your email!
2007-12-10toni brnovic
 i have the same problem hope this will fix it
 Your photos contain a large number of errors, but I'll see what I can do!


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